Thursday, 19 May 2011


It is not known exactly, when this Portuguese forest was created. Several Portuguese kings are mentioned in its origin – Sancho I, Sancho II, Afonso III and Dinis.
On a less known version, Queen Isabel, to whom her husband D. Dinis had given this lands, is presented as the main responsible for its soaring, as soon as she knew of a special pine specie that could easily grow on sandy soil.

However, it is to King Dinis, the Farmer (1261-1325) that is given the responsibility of this area’s sowing, development and arrangement. Therefore, this enormous area of forest is still known as the King’s Pine Forest.

Someone named it as the “Greatest Portuguese Monument” due to its important role in local and national development, across the years.

Since the beginning this pine forest had the important function to hold sand and salt that invaded fertile lands on interior, allowing, this way, farming. In the first early centuries of nationality the forest offered wood for ship building that would be used for development of fishing, for maritime trade and later on maritime expansion. During the Philippine period (1580-1640) the forest’s limits were defined.

In the eighteen century new regulations were created in order to increase the development, effective good use and defense of Leiria’s wood. As consequence raw materials were supplied to the famous glass factory of Marinha Grande (near city), founded by William Stephens.
On the nineteen century, the forest strongly decayed due, either, to the French Invasions and big fires in 1806, 1814, 1818, 1824.

In 1867 a study of Bernardino Barros Gomes divided the forest into rectangles in order to achieve a better management of it.

In 1980 another study allowed to calculate the total area of the Forest – more than 11000 hectares.

Sunday, 8 May 2011


In the Rodnei Mountains, human intervention, propelled by the wish to expand the grazing and exploitation area for limiting forests, is reflected at present in the upper limit intensely lowered in comparison with the natural limit, especially in the most accessible areas. The variation in altitude of the superior limit of forests is appreciated at a medium range of 200-300 m, having elevated values on the southern slope where, on several peaks, the superior limit of forests is artificially lowered up to 1,100-1,200 m in altitude.

The forest species that can be found most often at the upper limit of the forest is the Picea Abies. There are situations when the superior limit of the forest is made up of other species as well: the Fagus sylvatica (in the south and south-west), the Sorbus aucuparia, the Betula pendula, and the Pinus cembra (in the east). In most cases, however, the height of limiting trees in Rodnei Mountains exceeds 8-10 m, which gives away the fact that, generally speaking, the present forest is not one to indicate a natural limit.

The forests’ upper limit is, mostly, artificially lowered due to the anthropic pressure in the transition area between the forest belt and the sub-alpine belt. Here, deforestation activities aiming at the expansion of grazing fields and obtaining wood, conducted mainly throughout the past century, have had a main effect in the destruction of savins and spruce open woods, and in the deforestation of large areas covered in forests. Since spruce forests make up the upper-most belt in Rodnei Mountains, and softwood timber is the main matter destined for the internal and external market, or used in the reinforcing of mining galleries, it is easy to understandthe downwards expansion of terrains occupied by sub-alpine and alpine grazing fields following deforestation.

The natural limit is usually found where the terrain is not easily accessible, especially on the northern slope of Rodnei Mountains, on the slopes of Hotarului Peak, Curmătura Pietrosului, Piciorul Plescuţei Peak, Gaja Mountain.

Friday, 6 May 2011

The information about Sığla Forest-Dalaman

The Sığla (Sweet Gum Trees) ForestsWhen we search aboutthe history of  Sığla there are some important news that we would like to share with you…The most interestinf info is that 'Sığla oil is  Cleopatra’s love potion  and Hipocrat’s medicine..'

Sığla tree  comes up rarely in Muğla and Its enviroment.and Also you can meet Sığla forests in Rodos and China too.
The oil and resin of Sığla are indispensable raw material fort he Cosmetics.The Sığla oil has been used in parfume cosmetic for many many years.İn addition to cosmetic,It is also used as a medicine in all over the world.It is very good antiseptic and an effective solution for the parasites.After the improvement  in perfume and cosmetic in 19th century,Sığla oil had a more important place in the raw materials of cosmetic.Today in Turkey all of the Sığla forests are under the protection of Goverment.The enviromental groups know how It is important to save trees and they organize different campains for growing more trees and protect the forests.As students try to grow Sığla trees and the people plant Sığla If they would like to plant a tree.Altough Dalaman is very famous with its natural fine and gumtrees,Sığla has an important place for the people.When We look trough the Dalaman,It is possible to see thick natural forests BUT It is very different to see the Sığla trees with its beautiful leaves.It is pğossible for you to feel teh smelling of the tress wh,ile walking in the forests.

Why is the Sığla oil used in parfume?

Sığla oil has a different smell and at first It is used for its natural aromatic smell.the second reason maybe It is the most important one is the oil is used in pefumes to fix the smell of the perfumes and avoid the disapper of the perfume in short time.It is like a fixer.In this way It is possible to have a perfume which smells for days and weeks.

Thursday, 5 May 2011


Environmental and economic benefits, systematic application of sustainable waste management in education buildings also make a positive contribution to the education of future generations. This study examines schools in Istanbul, which are part of the Eco-Schools International Programme. And DOGA COLLEGE is one of the strong members of this programme. This programme was established in 1994 with European Union support and it aims to introduce environmental management systems into primary schools within the scope of ISO 14001/EMAS. A questionnaire study was administered on the theme of litter management and sustainable waste management within elementary schools located in the Asian and European parts of Istanbul city, and the findings of a field survey were examined. Questionnaire findings were gathered under five themes: litter management, composting of organic waste, re-use of school materials, reducing consumption–selection of recycled products, waste management and sorting of recyclable materials.

Alow average of just over 1 sq metre of forest reserve is put aside per person; conservationists say the average in Europe is about 40 sq metres per person.
Air-pollution in the city is a big problem. Though clean-burning Russian natural gas has replaced dirty lignite as the preferred winter heating fuel, air pollution is stil significant, largely due to the ever-inreasing number of cars jamming city roads.

The major environmental threat to the city is pollution od its wasterways. Increased oil exports from Caspian Sea region to Russia and Georgian ports and across the Black Sea has led to increased oil-tanker traffic through the narrow and winding Turkish Straits, which comprise the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus.

Tuğba Yüksel
Doga Schools

Wednesday, 4 May 2011

More photos from Malta

These are some of the photos we took when we went at Buskett.